This is an in-depth guide to the AIDA Model.
In this guide you’re going to find out:
- What is the AIDA model?
- What are the AIDA model stages?
- How to use AIDA in marketing effectively?
- What are other AIDA model variants?
- AIDA model examples.
- And so much more.
So, let’s get right into it.
- What Is the AIDA Model?
- What Does AIDA Stand for?
- What Is the Purpose of the AIDA Model?
- Why Is AIDA Important?
- Who Created the AIDA Model?
- The AIDA Model Stages
- Stage #1: Attention
- What Is Attention in AIDA?
- Which Marketing Strategies Can Be Attributed to the Attention Stage?
- Stage #2: Interest
- What Is Interest in AIDA?
- Which Marketing Strategies Can Be Attributed to the Interest Stage?
- Stage #3: Desire
- What Is Desire in AIDA?
- Which Marketing Strategies Can Be Attributed to the Desire Stage?
- Stage #4: Action
- What Is Action in AIDA?
- Which Marketing Strategies Can Be Attributed to the Action Stage?
- Stage #1: Attention
- AIDA Model in Marketing
- How to Effectively Use the AIDA Model in Marketing?
- What Are the Advantages of the AIDA Model?
- What Are the Drawbacks of the AIDA Model?
- Other AIDA Model Variants
- The Hierarchy of Effects Model
- The DAGMAR Formula
- The AIDAS Model
- The AISDALSLove Model
- How Has AIDA Expanded?
- Examples of the AIDA Model
- AIDA Model for Coca Cola
- AIDA Model for Apple
- AIDA Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
- What Does AIDA Stand for?
- Is AIDA Still Relevant Today?
- Which Companies Uses the Aida Model?
What Is the AIDA Model?
The AIDA model is one of the class models (known as the hierarchy of effects models or hierarchical models), that includes a series of steps or stages that consumers move through when they make purchase decisions.
The model was originally used to help explain how ads and marketing communications become engaging to prospects and how customers discern between brands to make an ultimate buying decision.
TheAIDA modelthen describes the necessary number of tasks that are required to move a customer from the awareness stage to the very action that leads to a conversion.
What Does AIDA Stand for?
AIDAstands for Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action describing the customer journey throughout the sales process. It is a marketing model that traces a customer’s journey from the initial contact to when they finally make a purchase.
AIDA is one of the most classic marketing modelsthat analyze and measure the customer’s journey from ignorance to purchase.
It has been around since the late 19th century and it belongs to the ‘hierarchy of effects model‘ also known as the ‘hierarchical models,’ which imply consumers move through a series of steps when making a purchasing decision.
Hierarchical models have dominated the advertising and marketing industry. But, the AIDA model is widely used.
This model is built on the assumption that every buyer passes cognitive (thinking processes) and affective (feelings or emotional steps), which eventually culminate in a behavioral outcome which is the actual purchase.
However, over the years, it has undergone different changes and modifications.
In some variants, Attention is replaced with Awareness and Desire with Decision.
What Is the Purpose of the AIDA Model?
The main purpose of the AIDA marketing model is that it helps to identify the main stages that the consumer has to go through during the buying process of a product or service.
This is also referred to as a purchase funnel or sales funnel where buyers go through each stage to make the final purchase.
Why Is AIDA Important?
The AIDA model shows how to lead people through a logical process that hooks them, gets them interested, makes them want it, then prompts actions to close the deal.
Going through these steps in order is one of the best ways to convince someone to buy a product, buy a service, or just take any other action.
Who Created the AIDA Model?
The AIDA model was developed in 1898 by E. St. Elmo Lewis in an attempt to explain how personal selling works.
In one of his advertising publications, Lewis suggested three principles to which an advertisement should adhere to for it to be considered a successful advertisement:
- Attract attention
- Maintain interest
- Create desire
- Later, he added a new phase called get action.
Here’s how E. St. Elmo Lewis explained these principles:
The mission of an advertisement is to attract a reader so that he will look at the advertisement and start to read it; then to interest him, so that he will continue to read it; then to convince him, so that when he has read it he will believe it. If an advertisement contains these three qualities of success, it is a successful advertisement.
However, AIDA use wasn’t solely confined to advertising.
Originally developed forstructuring sales negotiations, Lewis’ formula was soon applied in all areas of marketing.
Even today, AIDA is one of the best-known models of advertising research.
The AIDA Model Stages
The AIDA marketing model has four stages: Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. These four stages show how to funnel consumers towards a purchase.
In simple words, it helps them to know the product, like the product, and finally – purchase the product.
Here’s how each stage of the AIDA model works:
- Attention – Attract the consumer’s attention to your product or service.
- Interest – Increase consumer interest in your product or service
- Desire – Make the consumer want your product or service.
- Action – Initiate an action for the consumer to buy your product or service.
Let’s look at each stage in more detail.
Stage #1: Attention
The attention stage is the first phase of the buyer’s journey.
What Is Attention in AIDA?
Attention is the process of making potential customers aware of your business and the service or product your offer.
During the attention stage, it’s a common thing that prospective consumers have already identified a problem, they’re already trying to understand it, and are looking for possible solutions to solve it.
This is where your business should come.
In the attention stage, your main goal should be to get attention from the potential consumer to your products or services that would help them solve their problems.
Which Marketing Strategies Can Be Attributed to the Attention Stage?
To the attention stage can be attributed these marketing strategies:
- TV commercials
- PPC advertising
- Video ads
- Social media advertising
- Word of mouth marketing
- Content marketing
- Affiliate marketing
- And so much more…
Stage #2: Interest
Once a lead has converted from the attention phase, they enter the interest stage.
What Is Interest in AIDA?
Interest is the process when a potential customer has already noticed your product or service, but there is still needed to generate interest in the benefits of your products or service, and sufficient interest to encourage the buyer to start to research further about it.
In the interest phase, he’s trying to learn more about the company, its products or services, and any other helpful information about it.
At this point, your main goal is to increase consumer interest levels in your product or service.
You can do this by creating a consistent brand voice and message that your target audience can relate to, and sharing it through various marketing channels.
Which Marketing Strategies Can Be Attributed to the Interest Stage?
Here are some of the marketing strategies that can be attributed to the interest stage:
- Email Marketing
- Chatbot marketing
- Retargeting campaigns
- Social Media accounts
- And so on
Stage #3: Desire
The desire (in some cases it might be called decision) is the third stage of the sales funnel.
What Is Desire in AIDA?
Desire is when the consumer is already interested in your product or service and you’re trying to make them desire it, moving their mindset from “I like it” to “I want it.”
This phase aims to help the customer to decide whether to buy your product or service.
In this stage, the potential customers reach the point where they are persuaded to commit.
This is where they decide that they really want to be your customer.
Not only have you caught their attention and got them interested in your brand, but they’re also actually considering making a purchase.
At this point, your main goal should be to persuade a potential customer to want to own your product.
In some best-case scenarios, an advertisement alone can create the desire to purchase.
However, in most cases, they will need to get more information about your product. They’re going to be looking for how well your offer fits within their budget, their current business model, and what kind of outcomes they can expect.
This is also where they look for customer reviews and testimonials and look for affirmation for the decision they are about to make.
Which Marketing Strategies Can Be Attributed to the Desire Stage?
The desire (decision) stage can be attributed to these marketing strategies:
- Detailed presentation of product features
- Pricing pages
- Product comparison pages
- Live demos and tutorials
- Free trials
- And so on
Stage #4: Action
Action is the final of the buying process.
What Is Action in AIDA?
Action is the process when the prospect decides to take the action necessary to become a customer. The purchasing process should finally take place at this stage.
This phase usually occurs naturally if your prospects have been carried through the first three stages (Attention, Interest, and Desire) and responded to it appropriately.
After properly nurturing the prospect they should be ready to take action and buy your product or service.
It’s now time for the desire to translate into a purchase.
This is where you close the deal – and you want that to be a simple, straightforward process.
Which Marketing Strategies Can Be Attributed to the Action Stage?
- Call-to-Action (CTA) buttons
- Special offers
- Follow-up email campaigns
- And so on
AIDA Model in Marketing
AIDA formula guides marketers on how to reach and connect with their prospects, engage them, activate activities your potential customer is required to take, and finally nurture a customer into making a purchase.
This model is universal.
You can apply it to different businesses, including service-based ventures, in various industries.
This model can be used by:
- Copywriters focusing on promotional takes that encourage readers to take immediate action.
- Commercial developers and designers who want their ads to prompt a viewer to take advantage of the product promoted or order/enroll for a particular service.
- Managers and salespeople who are are eager to interest their audience.
- B2B entrepreneurs and marketers who are looking for long-term contracts and business relationships with clients.
- And so on.
How to Effectively Use the AIDA Model in Marketing?
AIDA marketing model can be used for all types of digital marketing and offline advertising materials.
These include web pages, emails, paid advertisements, direct mail pieces, and even radio and TV ads.
The AIDA model works best when it’s viewed as a checklist to run through.
Here’s how to effectively use AIDA formula in your marketing campaigns:
- Attract attention. Make your potential consumer become aware of your brand or specific product.
- Generate interest. Engage consumers with your product by generating interest in the benefits of your product or service, and sufficient interest to encourage the buyer to start to research further.
- Make them desire it. After the consumer is interested in the product or service, then the goal is to make consumers desire it, moving their mindset from “I like it” to “I want it.”
- Initiate action. The main goal here is to initiate action and encourage the consumer to purchase the product or service.
When used correctly, the AIDA model can yield tremendous results in marketing campaigns to:
- Boost sales
- Establish long customer relationships
- Increase number of leads
- Build brand awareness
This video explains very well how the AIDA formula can be used in any of the marketing campaigns:
AIDA Model Pros & Cons
What Are the Advantages of the AIDA Model?
One of the main advantages of the AIDA model is that it helps to create a customer journey map.
By tracking each phase of the buying journey, you’ll be able to see which parts deliver strong returns and properly transition your potential consumers into the next phase.
This also tells you which parts tend to fail.
And by understanding which parts of buying journey are broken, you can prioritize and devote most of your resources to things that are likely to fix and eliminate the complicated areas.
What Are the Drawbacks of the AIDA Model?
One of the main drawbacks of the AIDA model is that the purchase decision process is not considered anymore after it ends.
Usually, all post-purchase effects such as satisfaction, dissatisfaction, customer ratings, and recommendations remain unaffected.
Normally, after a customer makes an initial purchase, it opens the door for a long-term business-consumer relationship. Meanwhile, the AIDA model doesn’t count this step.
Another criticism is that AIDA is a step-by-step model with sequential individual stages.
However, in practice, the sales process isn’t always linear, and some steps can be completed as one.
For example, attention and interest.
An ad can grab a buyer’s attention and arouse their interest at the same time.
In addition, the AIDA model has been around for over120 years.
And some of the steps are not suitable for the modern sales world.
That’s why more approaches have been developed based on the AIDA formula.
These new approaches have extended the basic AIDA model by including additional phases into account.
Other AIDA Model Variants
In the years, many alternative AIDA models have evolved. Many attempts have been made to be more precise or include other components of the consumer’s path to purchase.
Some variants added a post-purchase stage to cater to customer retention. Others added new steps to accommodate the new interactive and digital media, such as social media.
Nevertheless, all variants include a stimulus that elicits a response through the cognitive-affective-behavioral process.
Below are some of the AIDA model variants:
- Basic AIDA Model: Awareness → Interest → Desire → Action
- Lavidge et al.’s Hierarchy of Effects: Awareness → Knowledge → Liking → Preference → Conviction → Purchase
- DAGMAR Formula: Awareness → Comprehension → Conviction → Action
- AIDAS Model: Attention → Interest → Desire → Action → Satisfaction
- AISDALSLove model: Awareness → Interest → Search → Desire → Action → Like/dislike → Share → Love/Hate
The Hierarchy of Effects Model
The hierarchy of effects model, created by Lavidge and Steiner, is made up of a hierarchical sequence of different advertising effects and breaks the purchasing decision-making process into a total of six stages:
- Awareness: advertising measures are aimed at making potential customers aware of the advertised products.
- Knowledge:the awareness phase is followed by the knowledge phase where the products are better described.
- Liking: interested parties should start to be keen on the advertised products.
- Preference: the customer’s fondness results in a preference for certain products over others.
- Conviction: The potential customer has made up their mind and wants to purchase the product.
- Purchase: the final phase of the hierarchy of effects model includes the intended action: the purchase.
The DAGMAR Formula
Based on the AIDA model, the American advertising researcher Russell H. Colley published the so-calledDAGMAR formulain 1961. The acronym stands forDefiningAdvertisingGoals forMeasuredAdvertisingResults.
According to DAGMAR, each purchase prospect goes through four steps:
- Awareness:advertising must create awareness of the advertised brands and products.
- Comprehension:advertising must provide the potential customer with an understanding of the features and the benefits of the advertised product or service.
- Conviction: good advertising has a convincing effect by showing the customer the personal benefits and advantages compared to the alternatives.
- Action:the end of the decision-making process is the step where the purchase is made.
These steps are also known as ACCA advertising formula. Developed for the measurement of advertising effectiveness it maps the states of mind that a consumer passes through.
The AIDAS Model
The AIDAS model adopts the four phases of the AIDA model and extends it with an extra phase – satisfaction.
This means that the model doesn’t stop once the purchase has been made.
After the purchase has been made, it continues so the company knows whether the customer is happy with their purchase or not.
The AIDAS model stands for:
The AISDALSLove Model
AISDALSLove is another hierarchy of effects model in advertising adapted from AIDA’s model. This concept of AISDALSLove model was introduced by Bambang Sukma Wijaya and it stands for:
According to Wijaya’s advertising model, the search phase considers the fact that consumers are now more critically opposed to advertising promises. The internet provides consumers with a comprehensive research tool where they can review facts and compare offers.
Thelike/dislike phasetakes the consumer’s experience into account after they have made their purchase.
Share is an independent stage that happens after the purchase. Because of the recent development of information technology, consumers have the power to perform radical actions that may cause an impact on the brand image of a product.
In addition, the AISDALSLove model assumes that advertising measures can also lead to long-term effects, which in turn lead to positive (love) or negative (hate) feelings towards products, brands, or companies. An aspect that takes center stage in thelove/hatephase.
How Has AIDA Expanded?
Most current consumer path-to-purchase models, are actually expanded AIDA models, refining extra steps which we can now more properly identify and measure through digital media opportunities.
- Attention expands into Reach and Awareness
- Interest expands into Appreciation and Consideration
- Desire becomes into Intent to buy
- Action expands into Acquisition and Customer relationship
All of these models try to create a new and more modern module, but still, they are all bundled into the same old AIDA module.
Examples of the AIDA Model
AIDA Model for Coca Cola
The Coca-Cola company has been using the AIDA model for years.
Let’s take a look at how they implement the AIDA model in their marketing campaigns:
- Attention: first they show a situation that has nothing to do with Coca-Cola (to attract your attention).
- Interest: then they start telling a beautiful story that evokes good feelings (they interest you).
- Desire: in the story, they associate desired values with Coca-Cola (friendship, happiness, family, etc.).
- Action: they show people having fun and drinking Coca-Cola.
AIDA Model for Apple
Here’s how Apple used the AIDA model when they introduced their very first iPhone:
- Attention: They announced that they will be launching something new, a product no one had seen before (they got attention)
- Interest: Then Steve Jobs took the stage to create Interest. He explained what the product was and what are its salient features. This developed the interest among the customers.
- Desire: The desire stage was created when Steve Jobs explained to the customers how it would solve the problems they have with existing phones.
- Action: Finally, Steve Jobs showed some action – he used it, showing evidence that it was real.
AIDA Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What Does AIDA Stand for?
AIDA stands for attention, interest, desire, and action, describing the customer journey throughout the sales process.
This acronym describes a marketing funnel outlining the four steps a customer goes through from first noticing an item to making a purchase.
Is AIDA Still Relevant Today?
YES,AIDA is still relevant today. Because AIDA looks at the buying process not from the communications angle, but from the consumer’s point of view. And the consumers haven’t changed much. Their buying process has evolved, but the process itself has not.
Which Companies Uses the Aida Model?
The AIDA marketing model has been used famously by companies such as Coca-Cola, Nike, and Apple. These companies have strong, attention-grabbing commercial advertisements in all forms of media (print, tv, social, etc.) that create a desire for their product. And their AIDA strategy has proven to work on a global scale. However, this model can be easily adapted by any other business – no matter how big it is.
- AIDA (marketing)
- AIDA – Oxford Reference
- Lewis, E. St Elmo. “Side talks about advertising.”The Western Druggist 21.2 (1899): p. 65-66.
- Lewis, E. St. Elmo. (1908) Financial Advertising, Indianapolis: Levey Bros. & Company. p. 124.
- “Catch-Line and Argument” The Book-Keeper, Vol. 15, February 1903, p. 124.
- Egan, J.,Marketing Communications, London, Thomson Learning, p. 42-43
- HUEY, BILL. “Advertising’s Double Helix: A Proposed New Process Model.” Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 39, no. 3, May 1999, p. 43. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A60072292/AONE?u=anon~ab1609e7&sid=googleScholar&xid=26a0fd9c. Accessed 12 Oct. 2021.
- Belch, G. E., and M. A. Belch. “Evaluating the effectiveness of elements of integrated marketing communications: A review of research.”Occasional Paper, San Diego State University (2016).
- “Well Told is Half Sold,”The United Service. A Monthly Review of Military and Naval Affairs,Vol. 9 (N.S.), 1893, p. 8. An identical ad appeared inThe Centuryof the same year.
- Lavidge RJ, Steiner GA. A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Marketing. 1961;25(6):59-62. doi:10.1177/002224296102500611
- McGuire, William J. “An information-processing model of advertising effectiveness.”Behavioral and management science in marketing15 (1978): 156-80.
- Thomas E. Barry & Daniel J. Howard(1990)A Review and Critique of the Hierarchy of Effects in Advertising,International Journal of Advertising,9:2,121-135,DOI:10.1080/02650487.1990.11107138
- Wijaya, Bambang Sukma (2012). “The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising“,International Research Journal of Business Studies, 5 (1), April–July 2012, p. 73-85
- Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising by Solomom Dutka. Publisher:NTC Business Books; 2 Sub edition (April 1, 1995)
What is the AIDA model? The AIDA Model identifies cognitive stages an individual goes through during the buying process for a product or service. It's a purchasing funnel where buyers go to and fro at each stage, to support them in making the final purchase.What is the AIDA model explain for how it used in persuasive messages? ›
The AIDA model is a framework for persuasive communication from the world of marketing. Its four stages are: awareness, interest, desire and action. It's a hierarchy of effects model that follows the CAB process. It starts by developing awareness (Cognition) then desire (Affect) before stimulating action (Behavior).How do you use AIDA? ›
The stages are Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA). During these four stages, your content will ideally attract attention to your brand, generate interest in your product or service, stimulate a desire for it, and spur action to try or buy it.How will you use the AIDA framework to achieve this? ›
- About the AIDA Model. ...
- Attract Attention and Get Noticed. ...
- Generate and Maintain Interest. ...
- Create Desire for Your Product or Service. ...
- Get the Consumer to Take Action. ...
- Limits of AIDA Marketing.
- Attention – getting your customer's attention.
- Interest – stimulating your customer's interest.
- Desire – creating in your customer a desire for the product.
- Action – leading your customer to take action and buy.
AIDA model example
Awareness: To create brand awareness, the marketing team uses more digital tools and resources to reach their customer base. They create active social media channels and share branded hobby-related content to increase the number of people who know about their store.
The AIDA model helps the copy writer to present the elements of a print ad, Headline, Subhead, Body copy, slogan and contact information in a format that makes the viewers read in a flow and understand about the product easily.What is the AIDA model essay? ›
AIDA model was presented by Elmo Lewis to explain how personal selling works. It shows a set of stair-step stages which describe the process leading a potential customer to purchase. The stages, Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action, form a linear hierarchy.How do I write an AIDA plan? ›
- A: Attention. Get your reader's attention by writing an interesting hook or opening twist. ...
- I: Interest. Keep your reader's interest in your topic by explaining the problem she faces. ...
- D: Desire. ...
- A: Action. Move your reader to act or take a step to solve the problem.
The most common counts in Aida Cloth are 11, 14, 18 and 28. The higher the number, the smaller the stitches will be, because there are more stitches in each inch. Beginners may want to start with 11-count or 14-count Aida Cloth, as it is easy to see where to place the stitches.
Marketing is filled with acronyms, including the AIDA model. AIDA stands for attention, interest, desire, and action, describing the customer journey throughout the sales process.How does AIDA relate to promotion? ›
AIDA is an acronym that stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. It sales and marketing, it is an organizational structure used to induce a sale or influence consumers purchase decision. Through promotional activities, marketers seek to move customers through these stages.What is the purpose of the action stage of AIDA? ›
The desire stage is best bit of the model to talk about USP's and the benefits of your product. Now is the time to sell why someone needs what you offer! Action – Now you have gained customer interest in your brand, product or service and its benefits, we need to convince them to take action and purchase.Is AIDA model still effective? ›
AIDA is a classic marketing model that has been around since 1898. And although it's an old advertising technique, it is still very much effective today.How can you apply the AIDA model to an application letter? ›
- A is for Attention. Grab It! As readers first work their way through piles of job applications, they merely scan and skim. ...
- I is for Interest. Build It! ...
- D is for Desire. Create It! ...
- A is for Action. That's What You Want!
The AIDA model is just one of a class of models known as hierarchy of effects models or hierarchical models, all of which imply that consumers move through a series of steps or stages when they make purchase decisions.Is Aida good for beginners? ›
Aida fabric is one of the most widely used cross stitch fabrics. Made from 100% cotton, Aida is a particularly good choice for beginners because the wide, open weave makes the holes easy to see.What is the best Aida? ›
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The AIDA model is limited to first-time customer purchases and doesn't discuss retaining existing customers or cross-selling and upselling options. Companies might focus on one or more parts of the AIDA model (e.g., attractiveness), and their businesses might suffer.What is the purpose of the AIDA model quizlet? ›
AIDA is a model of marketing that relates to the promotion of a product. It stands for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. the four stages of a promotion model which move the customer from a state where they have no awareness of the product through to the point at which they decide a purchase needs to be made.
The AIDA model is limited to first-time customer purchases and doesn't discuss retaining existing customers or cross-selling and upselling options. Companies might focus on one or more parts of the AIDA model (e.g., attractiveness), and their businesses might suffer.What is the AIDA model known as? ›
The AIDA model is just one of a class of models known as hierarchy of effects models or hierarchical models, all of which imply that consumers move through a series of steps or stages when they make purchase decisions.What is the role of AIDA to promotion mix? ›
AIDA is an acronym that stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. It sales and marketing, it is an organizational structure used to induce a sale or influence consumers purchase decision. Through promotional activities, marketers seek to move customers through these stages.What AIDA means? ›
The acronym stands for: Attention (or Attract). Interest. Desire. Action.